Sacral Pain: The sacral region (sacrum) is at the bottom of the spine and lies between the fifth segment of the lumbar spine (L5) and the coccyx (tailbone). The sacrum is a triangular-shaped bone and consists of five segments (S1 – S5) that are fused together. The first three vertebrae in the sacral region have transverse processes that come together to form wide lateral wings called alae. These alae articulate with the blades of the pelvis (ilium). As part of the pelvic girdle,
the sacrum forms the back wall of the pelvis and also forms joints at the hip bone called the sacroiliac joints. The sacrum contains a series of four openings on each side through which the sacral nerves and blood vessels run. The sacral canal runs down the center of the sacrum and represents the end of the vertebral canal. A healthy sacral region is rarely fractured except in instances of serious injury, such as a fall or trauma to the area. However, patients with osteoporosis or rheumatoid arthritis are inclined to develop stress fractures and fatigue fractures in the sacrum. Back pain or leg pain (sciatica) can typically arise due to injury where the lumbar spine and sacral region
connect (at L5 – S1) because this section of the spine is subjected to a large amount of stress and twisting during certain activities, such as sports and sitting for long periods of time.
The sacrum is wider and shorter in women than in men. Young and middle age woman are more susceptible to developing sacroiliac joint dysfunction, a condition in which pain typically concentrates on one side of the low back and radiates down the leg to the knee or at times, to the ankle or foot. While the exact root of the pain can be difficult to pinpoint, especially by someone that is not trained in the care of these problems. Disruption of the normal joint motion between the sacrum and ilium is